- 1141: The Treaty of Shaoxing (紹興和議): The Song dynasty renounced all claims to its former territories north of the Huai River (including its old capital Kaifeng).
- 1190: Temüjin united the Mongol tribes.
- 1203: Temüjin’s victory over Wang Khan’s Keraites.
- 1204: Temüjin’s victory over Naimans.
- 1206: Temüjin became Genghis Khan (around 40 years of age).
- 1207–1210: Genghis led operations against the Western Xia. Western Xia ruler submitted to Genghis Khan. The Uyghurs also submitted peacefully to the Mongols.
- 1211: Genghis led his armies against the Jin dynasty.
- 1215: Beijing fell; Genghis Khan turned to west and the Khara-Kitan Khanate.
- 1219–1222: Genghis Khan conquered Khwarezmid Empire.
- 1227: Genghis Khan died after conquering the Tangut people (Western Xia). —wiki/Genghis_Khan
- Temüjin (鐵木真, Genghis Khan, ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠵᠢᠨ; c. 1162 – 1227)
- Genghis Khan’s children:
- Jochi (ᠵᠥᠴᠢ, 朮赤; c. 1182–1227) is the eldest son of Genghis Khan. Under Jochi’s son Batu, Mongol rule expanded to its westernmost limit, and the Golden Horde (Kipchak Khanate) was established to consolidate the Jochid ulus.
- Chagatai (ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ, 察合台; 1183–1242) is the second son. He was Khan of the Chagatai Khanate from 1226-1242 C.E. He inherited most of what are now the five Central Asian states after the death of his father. Chagatai was considered hot-headed by his relatives.
- Ögedei (ᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡᠢ, 窩闊台; c.1185–1241) is the third son and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire(1206–1368), succeeding his father.
- Tolui (ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠢ, 拖雷; c.1191–1232)is the fourth son. His territorial inheritance was the homelands in Mongolia.
He served with distinction in the campaigns against the Jin dynasty, the Western Xia and the Khwarezmid Empire. He is a direct ancestor of most of the Emperors of Mongolia and the Ilkhanids.
- Genghis Khan’s followers; Four Hounds:
- Jebe (ᠵᠡᠪᠡ, 哲別; died 1223) was one of the most prominent Noyans (generals) of Genghis Khan. Even though Jebe was originally an enemy soldier, Genghis Khan recruited him and turned him into one of his greatest generals. Jebe has been described as “the greatest cavalry general in history”.
- Jelme (ᠵᠡᠯᠮᠡ, 者勒米; c.1160 – ?) was a general and close companion of Genghis Khan. He was the older brother of Subutai.
- Genghis Khan’s followers; Four valiant warriors:
- Muqali (ᠮᠣᠬᠣᠯᠢ, 木華黎; 1170–1223) was a Mongol slave who became Genghis Khan’s most trusted general. During the invasion of Jin China, Muqali acted as Genghis Khan’s second-in-command, and was promoted to Viceroy of China. In contrast to the many Mongol leaders willing to massacre to gain any advantage, Muqali usually attempted to convert foes into friends by more conciliatory means. By the time of Ogedei’s reign (1229-1241), he was viewed as the best of the extraordinarily talented pool of Mongol generals.
- Chilaun (ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ, 赤老溫) was one of Genghis Khan’s four valiant warriors.
- Borokhula (ᠪᠥᠷᠥᠬᠦᠯᠠ, 博爾忽; died 1217) was one of Genghis Khan’s four valiant warriors.
- Genghis Khan’s rivals:
- Jamukha (ᠵᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠠ, 札木合; died 1204) was Genghis Khan’s anda and ally who becomes the chief rival to Genghis Khan in the unification of the Mongol tribes.
- Wang Khan (ᠣᠩ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, 王罕, Toghrul; died 1203) , khan of the Keraites. was the anda of Genghis Khan’s father and a former ally of Genghis Khan and Jamukha. He sides with Jamukha in the war against Genghis Khan later. Genghis’son Tolui married one of Toghrul’s nieces.
The Quanzhen School is a branch of Taoism that originated in Northern China under the Jin dynasty. When the Mongols invaded the Song dynasty in 1254, the Quanzhen Taoists exerted great effort in keeping the peace, thus saving thousands of lives, particularly among those of Han Chinese descent.
- Wang Chongyang (王重陽, 1113–1170) Wang Chongyang was a Chinese Taoist and one of the founders of the Quanzhen School in the 12th century during the Jin dynasty. He combined the ideology of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism to establish the Quanzhen School. The seven famous personages of the School were his students. They also made great contributions to the development of Taoism in the ensuing years.
- The “Seven Masters of Quanzhen” (全真七子):
- Ma Yu (馬鈺; 1123–1183), Taoist name Danyangzi (丹陽子). After Wang’s departure, Ma Yu succeeded Wang as head of the school.
- Tan Chuduan (譚處端; 1123-1185), Changzhenzi (長真子).
- Liu Chuxuan (劉處玄; 1147-1203), Changshengzi (長生子).
- Qiu Chuji (丘處機; 1148–1227), Changchun zi (長春子), was the most famous among the seven masters and the founder of the Dragon Gate sect of Taoism.
- Wang Chuyi (王處一; 1142–1217), Yuyangzi (玉陽子).
- Hao Datong (郝大通; 1149-1212), Guangningzi (廣寧子).
- Sun Bu’er (孫不二; 1119–1182), Qingjing Sanren (清靜散人). Her husband was Ma Yu. At the age of 51 she took up the study of the Tao and herself became a disciple of Wang Chongyang. Sun was a teacher with several disciples, founding the Purity and Tranquility sect, and wrote many poems.
Dali Kingdom (937–1253)
The Dali Kingdom was a Bai-dominated ethnic kingdom situated in modern Yunnan province, China. The Dali took over the area of the Kingdom of Nanzhao, a powerful and advanced empire existed during the Tang period. Nanzhao was overthrown in 902 and three dynasties followed in quick succession before Duan Siping seized power in 937, establishing himself at Dali. The kingdom was conquered by the Mongol Empire in 1253. The dynastic period is divided into two eras called Former Dali and Later Dali by an insurrection in the year 1094.
The Dali were notable for their influence in preserving and spreading Buddhism. The Dali rulers constructed large Buddhist temples around Dali and on Shibaoshan Mountain, and helped Buddhism spread in the region before and during the Song era (960–1279).
- Duan Zhixing (段智興; died 1200) was the 18th ruler (1172 – 1200) of the Kingdom of Dali. Duan’s reign was marred by the power struggles within the influential Gao family. Being a devout Buddhist, he repaired 16 Buddhist temples. He and was succeeded by his son, Duan Zhilian (段智廉).
Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)
Originally subjects of the Liao (907–1125), the Juchen, with the aid of the Song dynasty, threw off the Liao and established their own dynasty between 1115 and 1122. They then turned to attack the Song and drove them south of the Huai River. Like the Liao they set up a dual-administration system: a Chinese-style bureaucracy to rule over the southern part of their conquests and a tribal state to control the nomadic tribes of Inner Asia. Over the course of their rule, the Jurchens of Jin quickly adapted to Chinese customs, their fierce warrior ways gradually disappeared, and the dynasty was finally destroyed in 1234, when it was caught in the middle of a newly concluded alliance between the Mongols on the north and the Song on the south.
- Emperor Zhangzong of Jin (金章宗, 1168-1208), Madage, sinicised name Wanyan Jing (完顏璟), was the sixth emperor (reigned 1189-1208) of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty. He inherited the throne from his grandfather, Emperor Shizong who encouraged intensive use of the Jurchen language and promotion of Jurchen customs. Emperor Zhangzong fought off the Song invasion during 1204-1208. He was succeeded by Wanyan Yongji.