Anti-Qing sentiment refers to a sentiment principally held in China against the Manchu ruling during the Qing dynasty (1644–1912). The Qing was accused of destroying traditional Han culture by forcing Han to wear their hair in a queue in the Manchu style.
The rallying slogan of anti-Qing activists was “Fǎn Qīng fù Míng” (反淸復明; literally: “Oppose Qing and restore Ming”).
Ming loyalists ineffectively resisted the Qing dynasty from various refuges in the south for a generation. Their so-called Nan (Southern) Ming dynasty principally included the prince of Fu (弘光帝), the prince of Tang (Longwu, 隆武帝), the prince of Lu (Zhu Yihai, no reign name), and the prince of Gui (Yongli, 永曆帝). The loyalist coastal raider Zheng Chenggong (Koxinga) and his heirs held out on Taiwan until 1683.
- Heaven and Earth Society / Tiandihui
- Zheng kingdom on Taiwan / Kingdom_of_Tungning
- House of Prince Mu / The Mu Prince Residence of Yunnan
- Ming dynasty
- Zhuang Tinglong Case
- Heaven and Earth Society (天地會, Tiandihui)
陳近南 (Can4 Kan5-naam4), the legendary founder of the Secret society Tiandihui(天地會). 陳近南 is believed to be the alias used by Chen Yonghua (陳永華, 1634 – 1680), a prominent official of the Zheng dynasty(Kingdom of Tungning).
- Zheng kingdom on Taiwan / Kingdom of Tungning
Zheng Jing (鄭經, 1642 – 1681), a 17th-century Chinese warlord and Ming Dynasty loyalist. He was the eldest son of Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) and a grandson of the pirate-merchant Zheng Zhilong. After the conquest of Fort Zeelandia in 1662 by his father, Zheng used the Taiwan base to sustain the anti-Qing struggle for 20 years.
Zheng Kezang (1662 – 1681), the crown prince and regency of the Zheng kingdom. Kezhang was the eldest son of Zheng Jing. He married the daughter of the official Chen Yonghua. Zheng Kezang was strict and he was hated by many royals and aristocrats, including Feng Xifan. After Zheng Jing and Chen Yonghua died, Kezhang was killed in Coup of Tungning (東寧之變).
Zheng Keshuang (鄭克塽, 1670 – 1707), Prince of Yanping, the last ruler of the the Zheng kingdom, the second son of Zheng Jing and a grandson of Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong). He surrendered to the Qing Empire of mainland China in 1683 and lived the rest of his life in Beijing.
Feng Xifan (馮錫範, fl. 17th century), an official and general of the Zheng kingdom. When Zheng Keshuang surrendered to the Qing dynasty in 1683, Feng Xifan was granted the noble title “Count Zhongcheng” (忠誠伯) by the Kangxi Emperor. Feng’s daughter married Zheng Keshuang and bore Zheng a son.
- House of Prince Mu / The Mu Prince Residence of Yunnan (雲南沐王府)
The Mu Prince Residence based in Yunnan is a pro-Ming secret organization that houses the descendants of Mu Ying, a general during the Ming Dynasty, and an adopted son of its founder, the Hongwu Emperor, and his followers.
Mu Tianbo (沐天波; 1627 – 1661) was a military officer who guarded Yunnan until the end of the Ming dynasty. He was one of the main supporters of the Yongli Emperor, the last emperor of the Southern Ming, and accompanied the fugitive emperor all the way into Burma. He is featured in “The Duke of Mount Deer” as the father of Prince Mu(沐劍聲, Muk6 Gim3-sing1) and Mu Jianping(沐劍屏, Muk6 Gim3-ping4).
- Ming Dynasty
Princess Changpingm (長平公主; c. 1629 – 1646), a daughter of the Chongzhen Emperor, the last Ming emperor. When the capital fell to the rebels, the Chongzhen Emperor started killing members of his household. He had cut off Changping’s left arm and left her for dead, but she survived. She was treated with courtesy by the succeeding Qing dynasty but died of illness two years later, when she was with child.
Li Zicheng (李自成; 1606 – 1645) was a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty. Li joined the rebel cause in 1630 in the northern Shaanxi province following a great famine that had caused much unrest in the northern part of the country. In 1644, Li captured the old capital of Xi’an and declared himself the first emperor of the Shun Dynasty (1644–1645). His armies marched east, capturing Taiyuan and heading toward Beijing.
Li took the city easily because the last Ming emperor was betrayed by a group of his eunuch generals, but his stay in the capital was short-lived. A combined force of former Ming and Manchu troops drove Li from the capital. He fled into Hubei province where he is thought to have been killed by local villagers.
The Zhuang Tinglong Case was a 17th-century case of literary inquisition. The case was about the publication of an unauthorised history of the Ming dynasty by Zhuang Tinglong (莊廷鑨; died 1655), a merchant from northern Zhejiang Province.
The book contained a number of inappropriate references to the Ming dynasty, as well as text considered taboo and defamatory to the Qing dynasty. Some examples include: use of era names of the Ming emperors; denial of the legitimacy of the Qing dynasty; references to the Manchus and Jianzhou Jurchens as “barbarians”; references to the Qing rulers by their personal names.
The thousands of people who were involved or implicated in the case were rounded up at a military camp in Hangzhou, where they were sentenced. Over 70 people were condemned to death.